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Miscellaneous Notes on the History of
Working in Chester County

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This file contains assorted facts from Chester County history collected by students in the HIS480 "Computer methods of historical research" class at West Chester University. Each fact consists of specific information, a reference note to its source, and a date. The "facts" are organized in chronological order.

This file has not been completely proofread, nor have the sources been verified, so use this material with caution.

Data collected by: Ken McFadden, Vince Civiletti, Chris Waychunas, Nancy Hershey, Bob Troutman, Bob Gregory, Scott Harre, Dan Cleary, and Jim Jones. Last edited by John Morrison (Spring 1996)

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1880/05/15     Source: Daily Local News (May 15, 1880)

     The PRR pay car came once a month to West Chester.  Salaries
     for railway employees increased by 10% starting in 1880/04.

------------------------
1880/04/10     Source: Daily Local News (April 10, 1880)

     Patrick J. Barry and Barney Finnegan started a hauling
     business located at 117 E. Miner Street.

------------------------
1881/09/21     Source: Daily Local News (September 21, 1881)

     Patrick J. Barry and Barney Finnegan dissolved their hauling
     business.

------------------------
1881/04/12     Source: Daily Local News (April 12, 1881)

     Patrick J. Barry started his own independent hauling
     business with four horses and four carts.

------------------------
1882/04/11     Source: Chester County Civil Court Docket #76290,
               81, at the Chester County Historical Society

     F.A. Tencate Esq., Cashier of the Phoenixville Iron Works,
     brings a suit to civil court against Michael Connily
     regarding a rental property in Puddler's Row (#?).  The suit
     contends that rent is due and unpaid by the defendant
     Michael Connily in the amount of $61.31.  A summons was
     issued 1882/04/15 at 10 A.M.  Whereabouts of the tenant are
     unknown, having moved away 1882/04/12, according to the
     Constable.  A judgment was rendered in favor of Phoenixville 
     Iron Works.  Defendant Connily was found to be indebted to
     said corporation in the sum of $61.31, plus $1.97 as cost of
     the suit.

------------------------
1882/03/07     Source: Chester County Civil Court Docket #76290,
               117, at the Chester County Historical Society

     James Halt, agent for the Phoenixville Iron Works, brings a
     suit to civil court against James Doran regarding a rental
     property at #5 Red Row.  A summons was issued 1882/03/07,
     retrievable 1882/03/12.  The suit was discontinued, with no
     further information listed.

------------------------
1882/04/04     Source: Chester County Civil Court Docket #76290,
               79, at the Chester County Historical Society

     F.A. Tencate Esq., Cashier of the Phoenixville Iron Works,
     brings a suit to civil court against John Diamond regarding
     a rental property in Cottage Row (#?).  The suit contends
     that rent is due and unpaid by the defendant John Diamond in
     the amount of $31.50.  A summons was issued 1882/04/08, with
     a judgment rendered in favor of Phoenixville  Iron Works. 
     John Diamond was ordered to give up peaceable possession of
     said premises and the sum of $31.50, plus $1.92 as cost of
     the suit.

------------------------
1882/04/17     Source: Chester County Civil Court Docket #76290,
               82, at the Chester County Historical Society

     F.A. Tencate Esq., Cashier of the Phoenixville Iron Works,
     brings a suit to civil court against John McAdams regarding
     a rental property in Puddlers' Row (#?).  The suit contends
     that rent is due and unpaid by the defendant John McAdams in
     the amount of $31.12.  A summons was issued 1882/04/17,
     retrievable 1882/04/22 at 10 A.M.  A judgment was entered
     that the defendant delivered up peaceable possession of said
     premises and the sum of $31.12, plus $1.77 as cost of the
     suit.

------------------------
1882/04/28     Source: Chester County Civil Court Docket #76290,
               83, at the Chester County Historical Society

     F.A. Tencate Esq., Cashier of the Phoenixville Iron Works,
     brings a suit to civil court against Thomas McAnnay
     regarding a rental property in Puddlers' Row (#?).  The suit
     contends that rent is due and unpaid by the defendant Thomas
     McAnnay in the amount of $14.24.  A summons was issued
     1882/04/28, retrievable 1882/05/03.  A judgment was rendered
     in favor of Phoenixville  Iron Works.  Defendant McAnnay was
     ordered to give up peaceable possession of said premises and
     the sum of $14.24, plus $2.02 as cost of the suit.

------------------------
1882/03/07     Source: Chester County Civil Court Docket #76290,
               117at the Chester County Historical Society

     James Halt, agent for the Phoenixville Iron Works, brings a
     suit to civil court against David Signett regarding a rental
     property at #22 Frame Row.  A summons was issued 1882/03/07,
     retrievable 1882/03/12.  The suit was discontinued, with no
     further information listed.

------------------------
1882/04/28     Source: Chester County Civil Court Docket #76290,
               p. 82at the Chester County Historical Society

     F.A. Tencate Esq., Cashier of the Phoenixville Iron Works,
     brings a suit to civil court against Michael Keenan
     regarding a rental property in Puddler's Row (#?).  The suit
     contends that rent is due and unpaid by the defendant John
     McAdams in the amount of $16.72.  A summons was issued
     1882/04/28, retrievable 1882/05/03.  A judgment was rendered
     in favor of Phoenixville  Iron Works.  Defendant Keenan was
     ordered to give up peaceable possession of said premises and
     the sum of $16.72, plus $1.77 as cost of the suit. 

------------------------
1882/01/28     Source: Daily Local News (January 28, 1882)

     Two houses from the estate of T. Chalkley Darlington sold on
     South Adams Street: nø329 and the house immediately to the
     south.  The house at 329 was 12' X 18', made of brick, sat
     on a 17.5' x 98' lot, and sold for $305.  The other house
     was made of frame and sold for only $301.  A West Chester
     grocer, Frank P. Darlington, bought both houses.  The
     executors of the estate were Jesse G. Darlington and William
     P. Sharpless.  The auctioneer was William H. Sharpless. 

------------------------
1882 Source: Poor House Book of Salaries 1882-1900 in Chester
     County Archives.

     Some workers took their pay in cash.  Many others took it in
     coal or food goods.  Some also appeared to take vacation
     time, some of it paid for.  

Salaries and Positions for those that worked at the Poor House.
Nurse                   $1.50  per/week
Cook in Cantina         $1.50  per/week
Work on Farm            $18    per/month
Sewing room             $2.50  pe/week
Teacher
Seamstress
Cook in Large Kitchen
Cook in Big Kitchen
Wash House              $1.50  per/week $6 per/month

------------------------
1883 Source: "Boys were sassy on switchboard" in "Daily Local
     News" (November 14, 1972), 100.  NOTE: Centennial issue nø2
     of 5 by the Daily Local News

     Norm Baker, manager of Bell Telephone's West Chester
     operation, claimed that the first telephones in West Chester
     were installed in 1883.  The first customer was the "Morning
     Republican," and others included Hoopes Brothers & Thomas,
     Dr. John R. McClurg, S. A. Kirk, Jerome Gray, "The Daily
     Local," and "The Village Recorder".  The first switchboard
     was installed over William Bell's grocery store at 10 E. Gay
     Street, and Nathan Rambo was the first switchboard operator.
     Boy operators were phased out around 1900 because they were
     "too sassy" to customers, often telling them to wait for a
     connection.
     New telephone installations in the early years were so
     important that they were often covered in front-page news
     stories.  By 1884, there were 50 subscribers and by 1901,
     there were 175.  When the West Chester exchange (Owens) went
     to dial operation on July 15, 1956, there were 12,000
     telephones.  In May 1963, "Owens" became "696."  As of
     January 1, 1972, there were 31,202 telephones in West
     Chester.  In 1971, Bell Telephone employed 400 employees in
     its West Chester facility, with an annual payroll of
     $3,283,567.

------------------------
1887/07/01     Source: Daily Local News 

     "The report of the death of five Hungarians in Puddlers'
     Row, although widely circulated and believed, was incorrect. 
     There is something wrong down there though, scruvy (sp), I
     am told, and people are giving that section a wide berth. 
     An employee of the Phoenixville  Iron Works, whose business
     frequently takes him to the "Row," told me yesterday that he
     saw in the army and elsewhere a good deal of filth, but the
     Huns here beat everything in that direction.   Dirt and
     beer,' he said,  they live upon.  Why after a wedding down
     there I saw two wagon loads of empty beer kegs hauled
     away.'"  

------------------------
1887/06/30     Source: Daily Local News 

     "Five Hungarians are found lying dead in Puddlers' Row,
     three men, a woman, and a child, from some disease of an
     epidemic form.  If it be true the wonder will not be great,
     for certainly that is a very filthy spot, and the Hungarians
     are very filthy people."

------------------------
1888/11/20     Source: Daily Local News (November 20, 1888)

     Officer Win. Gheen provided security at the PRR station on
     North Matlack Street.

------------------------
1888/06/21     Source: Daily Local News (June 21, 1888)

     The PRR tracks were raised in one day between the Barnard
     Street bridge and the North Matlack Street station by a work
     crew of nearly fifty men. 

------------------------
1889/02/13     Source: Daily Local News (February 13, 1889)

     Mrs. Lamborn, the woman who took care of the PRR station at
     North Matlack Street, reported to Officer Gheen that she had
     trouble with rowdy "colored" loiterers.

------------------------
1889/12/30     Source: Daily Local News (December 30, 1889)

     Mrs. Lamborn and Joseph Sweney were responsible for cleaning
     the PRR station at North Matlack Street.

------------------------
1889/01/24     Source: Daily Local News (January 24, 1889)

     James McFadden was the section boss who directed PRR track
     operations in West Chester.

------------------------
1889/01/16     Source: Daily Local News (January 16, 1889)

     Mr. McMichael was the PRR station master at North Matlack
     Street.

------------------------
1889/04/08     Source: Charles Gincley Obituary, in "Daily Local
               News" (April 8, 1889)

     Charles Gincley died.  His father was the dog keeper for
     Professor Bolmar.  Charles Gincley was an inventor who had
     invented a successful carpet stretching machine.

------------------------
1890/08/20     Source: Daily Local News 

     Michael Szaky, age 21, died at Pennsylvania Hospital at 4:30
     p.m. yesterday afternoon of burns sustained in an accident
     at Phoenixville Iron Works.  Szaky was a night-workman at
     the iron smelting works.  At 6:30 am he was wheeling a truck
     with a large bar of red-hot iron on it when he stumbled and
     fell on the iron.  The whole front part of his body was
     literally scorched before his comrades could rescue him.  He
     was wrapped in cotton batting and sent on the first train to
     Pennsylvania Hospital, arriving at 8:00 am.

------------------------
1890/09/23     Source: Daily Local News 

     "I think it would pay the Phoenixville Iron Works to give
     good laborers $1.50 per day instead of $1.00 to poor
     laborers who must of necessity have a boss over every 3 or
     four of them..."

     "The Hungarians have ruined nearly every branch of business
     in Phoenixville ."

     -John O.K. Roberts (sp. Robarts)

------------------------
1890/07/07     Source: Daily Local News 

     Charles Matts, a boarding boss at #2 Puddlers' Row,
     Phoenixville, was standing at the rear of his house the
     other night when an Italian or Hungarian threw a stone at
     him inflicting a long gaping wound in the forehead and
     fracturing the skull.  He was taken to Pennsylvania Hospital
     in Philadelphia.  His assailant escaped.

------------------------
1890/04/24     Source: Daily Local News 

     There was a work stoppage at the Puddling department of
     Phoenixville Iron Works Tuesday, owing to the refusal of
     puddlers to make 100 more pounds of iron for a heat without
     extra pay.  The company withdrew its order and work will
     recommence.

------------------------
1890/03/11     Source: Daily Local News 

     Payday brightens up business in town, as well as filled the
     cages of the borough lockup.

     A mulatto hailing from West Chester found by Officer
     Brownback (and a country Constable named Moyer) at the train
     station was marched across Gay Street bridge to the
     "Rivets," where he lingered for the night.

------------------------
1890/11/26     Source: Daily Local News 

     Some of the best and oldest employees of Phoenixville Iron
     Works were discharged yesterday and many more laid off the
     day before.  A gentleman from that place said to a reporter: 
     "New bosses make new rules.  Things are getting very
     unsettled over in our town."

------------------------
1890/09/25     Source: Daily Local News (September 25, 1890)

     Lamborn, Sweney and D. E. Townsend worked at the PRR
     station.

------------------------
1890/07/05     Source: Daily Local News (August 5, 1890)

     Frank Patton, the telegraph operator at the PRR station on
     Market Street, was promoted to the Media station and
     replaced by William S. Valentine of Avondale.

------------------------
1890/04/22     Source: Daily Local News (April 22, 1890)

     J. Kennard Jones returned as the baggage master at the PRR
     station on Market Street, replacing Charles Samples, after
     several weeks temporary assignment as the assistant operator
     in Oxford.

------------------------
1890/08/90     Source: Daily Local News 

     A Polander was sent to jail, charged with drawing from the
     Phoenixville Iron Works the pay of another employee whose
     name was similar to that of the prisoner's.  The latter's
     pay amounted to $3.00, while that of the other fellow's to
     $17.00.

------------------------
1890/12/03     Source: "Huns Fleeing Home and Westward" in "Daily
               Local News" (December 3, 1890).

     Almost every outgoing train is carrying away some of the
     recently discharged Hungarians.  Some are going back to
     their own country to live out the winter while others are
     hieing westward.

------------------------
1890/03/03     Source: Daily Local News 

     Shop #6 at Phoenixville Iron Works in running day and night
     in order to finish the orders on hand.  All hands are
     compelled to work all night.

------------------------
1890/01/16     Source: "Brutal Fight Between Two Iron Workers" in
               "Daily Local News" (January 16, 1890).

     James Quinn and Patrick McDonald fought with each other
     while working.  Quinn's face, hands, and side were literally
     chewed up, and he now lies in Girard House.  McDonald
     suffered badly damaged eyes.  Both are employed in the blast
     furnace, Quinn as the first helper and McDonald as the
     weighmaster.  Hot iron was being run into the beds and words
     between the two men led to blows.

------------------------
1890/03/20     Source: Daily Local News 

     A fire occurred on Wednesday morning at #31 Puddlers' Row,
     owned by Phoenixville Iron Works.  The house was occupied by
     Hungarians, who carelessly dumped hot ashes in the cellar. 
     Loss is not known, but houses in the "Row" are not costly
     buildings.

------------------------
1890s     Source: Shirley Macauley, "W. Chester's squares failed
          as rectangles" in "Daily Local News" (November 13,
          1972), 84.  NOTE: Centennial issue nø1 of 5 by the
          Daily Local News
     Wilmer Hoopes owned one of the first automobiles in West
     Chester.  "It was a Franklin, and like all of its
     contemporaries, spent more time in the blacksmith shop than
     on the road."

------------------------
1891/09/03     Source: Plaintiff's Statement:  Elizabeth M.
               McGlone vs. The Phoenixville  Iron Works  at the
Chester County Archives 

     John McGlone died as a result of a lift accident, which the
     plaintiff claims was of "extraordinary negligent and
     dangerous construction."  The lift was allowed to be run
     unoccupied as well as be operated by a boy aged under 14
     years.  Because of negligence and the fact that her family
     is now deprived of their support, Elizabeth M. McGlone is
     bringing suit against Phoenixville Iron Works for damages in
     the amount of $10,000.

------------------------
1891/12/26     Source: Statement of Appeal: Elizabeth M. McGlone
               vs. The Phoenixville  Iron Works  at the Chester
County Archives 

     The appeal of the verdict against Phoenixville Iron Works in
     the above case notes that the appeal is not filed "for
     purposes of delay, but because he firmly believes injustice
     has been done".  The appeal is signed by David Reeves,
     President of Phoenixville  Iron Works  .

------------------------
1891/09/03     Source: Plaintiff's Statement:  Elizabeth M.
               McGlone vs. The Phoenixville  Iron Works  at the
Chester County Archives

     In her statement, Elizabeth M. McGlone claims that her
     husband John McGlone was killed through negligence on the
     part of the defendant on 1891/06/25.  Elizabeth M. McGlone
     has two children, Joseph and Lizzie, the latter being
     between 15 and 16 years old and has been an invalid for 6
     years by reason of a spinal affliction.  This suit is
     brought on her behalf.

------------------------
1891/12/14-28       Source: Chester County Appearance Docket #55,
                    p. 73
Elizabeth M. McGlone vs. The Phoenixville Iron Works  at the
Chester County Archives

     In the case of Elizabeth M. McGlone vs. Phoenixville Iron
     Works, judgment was found in favor of the plaintiff for the
     sum of $750.  (Reference is then given to Judgment Docket
     Y2, 152.  Chester County Archives does not have this
     item.)  On 1891/12/14, the Elizabeth M. McGlone files for
     costs of court to the sum of $17.60.  The defendant,
     Phoenixville Iron Works, files an appeal of the verdict on
     1891/12/28, entering into recognizance in the sum of $400
     with D.M. McFarlan as surity.

------------------------
1891/04/08     Source: Daily Local News 

     The Phoenixville Iron Works announced a decrease of 5 and
     10% in the mill and shop hands wages.  All reports for
     Phoenixville are depressing indeed.

------------------------
1891/09/03-1891/12/08    Source: Chester County Appearance Docket
                         #55, 73
Elizabeth M. McGlone vs. The Phoenixville Iron Works  at the
Chester County Archives

     On 1891/09/03, Elizabeth M. McGlone filed a complaint in
     court against the Phoenixville Iron Works for the wrongful
     death of her husband, John McGlone.  The defendant,
     Phoenixville  Iron Works, pleads "Not Guilty" on 1891/09/23. 
     On 1891/11/09 it is agreed that Thomas M. Baldwin, Barclay
     Lear, and John D. Mullin shall act as arbiters, hearing the
     case 1891/12/07-08.

------------------------
1891/12/07     Source: Daily Local News 

     Lawsuit filed by Elizabeth M. McGlone against Phoenixville
     Iron Works is being heard today by Thomas W. Baldwin, Esq.,
     Barclay Lear, and John S. Mullin, arbiters sitting in the
     Grand Jury Room.  Mrs. McGlone is suing for damages for the
     loss of her husband John McGlone, killed in the company
     mills one day last summer.  Husband John was working on the
     second floor of the building, when a descending elevator
     caught him between its heavy framework and the wall of the
     building.  It was alleged that there was gross carelessness
     on the part of the company in constructing the elevator.

------------------------
1891/12/05     Source: Daily Local News

     When running full Phoenixville Iron Works employs upwards of
     3,000 men.  The company owned nearly all of the town of
     13,000 people, who depend on the company for support.

------------------------
1892/08/01-1893/02/21    Source: Chester County Appearance Docket
                         #55, 240
Mary Steinberger vs. The Phoenixville  Iron Works  at the Chester
County Archives

     On 1892/08/01, Mary Steinberger filed a complaint in court
     against the Phoenixville Iron Works for the wrongful death
     of her husband, John B. Steinberger.  Defendant Phoenixville
     Iron Works pleads "Not Guilty" 1892/08/19.  A jury is
     impaneled 1893/02/20.  On 1893/02/21 the court directs a
     non-suit to be entered, and judgment is entered accordingly. 
     (Reference is then given to Judgment Docket Y2, 562. 
     Chester County Archives does not have this item.)

------------------------
1892/11/25     Source: Daily Local News (November 25, 1892)

     A train struck a horse-drawn meat wagon belonging to S. A.
     Conradt at the Union Street grade level crossing.  Although
     neither Mr. Conradt nor his horse were injured, the wagon
     was destroyed.  Charles Riley Jr. was an eyewitness.

------------------------
1892/11/25     Source: Daily Local News (November 25, 1892)

     Mr. Finnegan's hours as gatekeeper at the Market Street RR
     crossing were extended to after the departure of the 22h27
     train to Philadelphia.  That meant he worked more than 16
     hours each day.

------------------------
1892/12/14     Source: Daily Local News      

     A 10% decrease was declared by Phoenixville Iron Works in
     all mills and shops of the plant except the Puddling Mill,
     where wages will decrease from $3.25 to $3.00 per ton. 
     Common laborers will hereafter receive $.95 cents instead of
     $1.02 per day.  Reason given is "depression in the
     business".

------------------------
1892/11/14-1893/11/13    Source: Chester County Appearance Docket
                         #55, 73
Elizabeth M. McGlone vs. The Phoenixville Iron Works  at the
Chester County Archives

     After continuances on 1892/11/14, 1893/02/13, and
     1893/05/08, the plaintiff in open court elects to suffer a
     non-suit on 1893/11/13, and judgment of non-suit is entered
     accordingly.  (Reference is then given to Judgment Docket
     Z2, 206.  Chester County Archives does not have this
     item.)

------------------------
1892/08/01     Source: Plaintiff's Statement: Mary Steinberger
               vs. The Phoenixville  Iron Works  at the Chester
County Archives

     In her complaint, Mary Steinberger claims that her husband
     John B. Steinberger was injured through the negligence of
     the defendant on 1892/02/18.  John B. Steinberger was
     injured when a chain connected to a hydraulic riveter broke,
     causing a 70 foot long, heavy iron girder (weighing about 1
     ton) to fall upon John, breaking his legs, etc.  John died
     of the effects of the accident at Pennsylvania Hospital
     1893/02/19.  Mary Steinberger claims that the defendant did
     not use due and proper care in and about its premises, and
     did not furnish her husband John B. Steinberger with a safe
     and secure piece of equipment as it was its duty to do so.

------------------------
1892/08/01     Source: Plaintiff's Statement: Mary Steinberger
               vs. The Phoenixville  Iron Works  at the Chester
County Archives

     In the statement, it is noted that Mary Steinberger she has
     two children, John B. Jr., 3 years, and Sarah, age 3 weeks. 
     It is claimed that Mary has suffered the loss of her husband
     who was "constantly earning and in receipt of good wages,
     supporting and providing said plaintiff and her children and
     affording them a comfortable livelihood and maintenance." 
     Suit is brought for damages in the amount of $20,000.

------------------------
1892/04/02     Source: Daily Local News (April 2, 1892)

     Jesse Kelley, a former "hackman," moved to East Nields
     Street east of Matlack Street.  He planned to open a
     restaurant at Lenape.

------------------------
1892/03/23     Source: Daily Local News (March 23, 1892)

     Mr. Gillingham was the ticket agent at the PRR station.

------------------------
1892/11/26     Source: Daily Local News (November 26, 1892)

     Frank Burnett was head of the PRR station fire company.

------------------------
1892/04/22     Source: Daily Local News (April 22, 1892)

     John Ryan worked for Patrick King directing the workmen who
     graded South Franklin Street through King's property.  King
     expected the borough to annex the property and extend South
     Franklin Street in the summer 1892.

------------------------
1892/11/10     Source: Daily Local News (November 10, 1892)

     Mr. Finnegan, the gatekeeper for the PRR crossing at Market
     Street, worked more than 12 hours each day.  He began before
     the first train left at 06h00, and stayed until after the
     18h00 train arrived from Philadelphia.  That meant the
     crossing was unguarded for the last four hours of the day.

------------------------
1892/07/14     Source: Daily Local News (July 14, 1892)

     Clement Proctor of West Chester got the contract to
     whitewash the PRR station.

------------------------
1893/12/08     Source: Daily Local News (December 8, 1893)

     The news agent of the PRR station on Market Street was
     Townsend.

------------------------
1893/02/15     Source: Daily Local News 

     Thirty colored laborers from Harrisburg, who came here 3
     weeks ago to take the places of dissatisfied Huns at
     Phoenixville  Iron Works, quit work yesterday over a
     misunderstanding as to wages.

------------------------
1893/11/11     Source: Daily Local News (November 11, 1893)

     People scavenged coal lumps at night using lanterns, from
     around the locomotive turntable located at Chestnut and
     North Matlack Streets.  They were tempted by the regular
     coal pile nearby, but railway guards kept them away.

------------------------
1893/09/21     Source: Daily Local News (September 21, 1893)

     The conductor on the PRR Media Branch was Miller.

------------------------
1893/01/28     Source: Daily Local News 

     A carload of colored men from the South arrived in
     Phoenixville  Iron Works  t yesterday to take the place of
     striking Hungarians.  The latter were working for $ .95
     cents per day.

------------------------
1893/02/15     Source: Daily Local News 

     "We would much rather have the colored men than the
     Hungarians as citizens," remarked a resident of Phoenixville 
     Iron Works.  "The Hungarians are of no benefit to anyone
     other than themselves.  They only patronize the two stores
     owned by fellow Hungarians, not spending one cent on our
     native merchants excepting the liquor dealers."

------------------------
1893/01/27     Source: Daily Local News 

     The Phoenixville Iron Works of Phoenixville has decided to
     employ no more Hungarian labor.  Places are being filled by
     colored men from the South.  The Hungarians have been
     receiving $ .95 cents a day and struck for an advance.

------------------------
1893/02/15     Source: Daily Local News 

     Mrs. Steinberger, of Phoenixville, is in West Chester today
     to attend court.  She is suing Phoenixville Iron Works for
     damages sustained in the loss of her husband.  While at work
     in shop 6 about two years ago, a chain of a crane used to
     hoist a heavy beam broke, and Mr. Steinberger was crushed to
     death.  His wife therefore brings this action to recover
     damages for his loss.

------------------------
1893 Source: Shirley Macauley, "W. Chester's squares failed as
     rectangles" in "Daily Local News" (November 13, 1972), 84. 
     NOTE: Centennial issue nø1 of 5 by the Daily Local News

     The Chester County Hospital began operation in a pair of
     small brick buildings on the north side of Marshall Square
     in 1893.

------------------------
1893/05/18     Source: Daily Local News (May 18, 1893)

     Terence Finnegan, the gatekeeper at the PRR crossing on
     Market Street, now had help from Daniel Clancy, who worked
     the twelve hour night shift.  The article noted that
     Finnegan "uses no tobacco or whiskey in any form."

------------------------
1893/07/06     Source: Daily Local News (July 6, 1893)

     West Chester Streets Commissioner Eachus led an inspection
     of the East Nields Street extension.  At the time, a gang of
     mostly Irish laborers were clearing brush and briars from
     the "jungle" on the Pennsylvania Railroad property.  They
     obtained fill dirt to raise East Nields Street to the level
     of the railroad from an excavation for an alley on property
     owned by P. J. Jefferis, which ran from Matlack to Walnut
     Streets between Nields and Lacy Streets.

------------------------
1893/08/25     Source: Daily Local News (August 25, 1893)

     The superintendent of the PRR station on Market Street was
     W. A. McMichael.

------------------------
1893/01/04     Source: Daily Local News 

     The Hungarians employed in Phoenixville Iron Works are
     leaving the borough daily, but others are arriving to take
     the places of the dissatisfied ones.  There are many--very
     many--who are not willing to work for $ .93 cents per day
     (as a result of a 10% pay reduction that went into effect on
     1892/12/15), and yet there are scores of others ready to
     take their place.

------------------------
1893/01/13     Source: Daily Local News 

     The Phoenixville Iron Works has decided to charge all
     tenants keeping more than 4 boarders $2.00 per month extra
     to help pay for extra wear and tear of their houses.  This
     will almost entirely apply to the Hungarian element.

------------------------
1893/02/20     Source: Court Testimony: Mary Steinberger vs. The
               Phoenixville  Iron Works, 5-6, at the Chester
County
Archives

     Upon questioning during the trial, Mr. B.F. Johnson admits
     to being in charge of the work gang to which John
     Steinberger was assigned.  The gang consisted of the
     following six men: Michael Durnan, James McCoy, Charles
     Kennedy, himself (B.F. Johnson), John Steinberger, and a
     Hungarian whose name he does not know

------------------------
1893/02/20     Source: Court Testimony: Mary Steinberger vs. The
               Phoenixville  Iron Works, p.1-4at the Chester
County
Archives

     Upon questioning during the trial, Mary Steinberger states
     that her husband received wages of $.11 cents per hour while
     working approximately 12 hours per day (6 A.M. to 6 P.M.) in
     Riveter Shop #6.

------------------------
1893/02/21-1893/04/24    Source: Chester County Appearance Docket
                         #55, 240.  Mary Steinberger vs. The
Phoenixville Iron Works
                          at the Chester County Archives

    The following information was also given after the non-suit
    entry: Eo die rule to show cause why judgment of non-suit
shall
not be 
    stricken off returnable 1893/03/13, filed 1893/03/06. 
Transcript 
    testimony filed 1893/03/13, argued c.a.v. 1893/04/24.  Rule
    discharged Eo die order of Court filed.

------------------------
1893/12/20     Source: Daily Local News (December 20, 1893)

     Two workers were fired at the PRR freight station, Eugene
     Talley and "one of the car cleaners."  That left only Frank
     Burnett to handle all freight loading and unloading.

------------------------
1893/01/02     Source: Daily Local News 

     The Phoenixville Iron Works has restarted operations after
     the holidays.  Of 700 or more Hungarians employed at
     Phoenixville  Iron Works, about 3/4 have left their jobs. 
     The Hungarians are first class laborers in every respect and
     work quite hard.

------------------------
1893/12/15     Source: Daily Local News (December 15, 1893)

     The resident cleaning woman of the PRR station on Market
     Street was Mrs. Kate Lamborn.

------------------------
1894/08/18     Source: Daily Local News 

     William Develin, a worker at Phoenixville Iron Works steel
     plant, was helping to land a 5,000 lb. red-hot ingot when
     his tongs slipped.  He fell back, and the ingot fell on his
     leg and remained there for almost 3 minutes.  The limb below
     the knee was practically burned away, and physicians at
     Stratford Hospital were obliged to amputate at once.

------------------------
1894/10/15     Source: Daily Local News (October 15, 1894)

     David E. Townsend was the ticket collector at the PRR
     station.

------------------------
1894/11/06     Source: Daily Local News (November 6, 1894)

     George Guss, the stationmaster at the PRR station, left to
     work for an electrical firm in Philadelphia, after two years
     in West Chester.

------------------------
1894/11/12     Source: Daily Local News (November 12, 1894)

     E. Harvey Hummell was the new baggage master at the PRR
     station on Market Street.

------------------------
1894/11/16     Source: Daily Local News (November 16, 1894)

     Josiah Burnett was head of the freight warehouse at the PRR
     station.  He was assisted by Frank Burnett and Isaac Smiley.

------------------------
1894/09/04     Source: Daily Local News (September 4, 1894)

     The conductor on the PRR Frazer Branch was Joseph Keech, and
     the baggage master of the PRR station on Market Street was
     Jesse Wilson.

------------------------
1894/07/11     Source: Daily Local News (July 11, 1894)

     Another train operated under the control of conductor Shaw
     and baggage man Isaac Jones.  Shaw was replaced by John
     Kerwin.  Also, George Mendenhall was on sick leave because
     his foot was run over by a milk car.

------------------------
1894/01/28     Source: C.C.D. (January 28, 1894)

     Thomas C. Hogue advertised his grocery store in West
     Chester.  His prices included: three cans of corn for 25›, a
     can of tomatoes for 10›, flour for between $5.00-5.60/pound,
     except "Snowflake" brand flour at $3.80/pound, cornmeal at
     10›/half peck (1 peck = 8 dry quarts), butter at 25-
     32›/pound, coffee at 25›/pound, sugar at 4›/pound, ham at
     12› pound, smoked beef at 20›/pound, and lard at 11›/pound.

------------------------
1894/08/01     Source: Deeds to Poor House in Chester County
               Archives.

     In a letter to C.H. Howell, C.B.Swisher stated that he will
     not run for the position of Director of the Poor due to "I
     am quite unwell."

------------------------
1894/11/08     Source: Daily Local News (November 8, 1894)

     Mr. Rigg of Clifton briefly served as baggage master at the
     PRR station after George Guss, but gave up after a few weeks
     due to illness.

------------------------
1894/03/28     Source: Daily Local News (March 28, 1894)

     Miller Snare was retired from the PRR by this time.  He was
     in bad health (and according to the death register, died in
     the following month).  William Munshower represented the
     Union News Company at the station.

------------------------
1894/05/03     Source: Daily Local News (May 3, 1894)

     James Wallace, an ex-policeman and ex-employee of the
     Customs House in Philadelphia, replaced Miller Snare as the
     general assistant and messenger at the PRR station.  The
     station master was still W. A. McMichael, and other
     employees included H. A. Gillingham, Walter Keech, conductor
     Edward Miller and baggage master George Guss.

------------------------
1894/07/17     Source: Daily Local News (July 17, 1894)

     Howard A. Gillingham was the ticket agent at the PRR
     station.  Clark Pyle was the "night operator."  This article
     also mentioned George Guss, Mrs. Lamborn, and the baggage
     master Jesse Wilson.

------------------------
1894/06/21     Source: Daily Local News (June 21, 1894)

     One train operated with conductor Marsh, baggage master
     Frank S. Wetsel and flagman Robert Cunningham.

------------------------
1894/05/19     Source: Daily Local News (May 19, 1894)

     William Gheen was a ticket agent at the PRR station.

------------------------
1894/08/20     Source: Daily Local News (August 20, 1894)

     The workers at the PRR station made preparations for "the
     handling of trunks next Monday when the Normalites return." 
     (Normalites were the students and faculty at the West
     Chester Normal School.)

------------------------
1895/09/08.ex.lab.  Source: E County 1825-96, Volume II.

     Edward Murry complained of a numbness of his hands and feet. 
     He worked in a tool store.  He lost all use of his hands and
     had to be fed like a child.  Doctors found him dead and said
     he died of paralysis of the brain.


------------------------
1895/05/25     Source: Daily Local News (May 25, 1895)

     H. Jesse Wilson was promoted to conductor on the PRR.

------------------------
1895/06/24     Source: Daily Local News (June 24, 1895)

     William Gheen was the assistant to ticket agent Gillingham. 
     McMichael was still the PRR station master, and two other
     employees were named Wallace and Sweney.

------------------------
1895/03/27     Source: Daily Local News (March 27, 1895)

     PRR Conductor Milton Shaw.  Conductor Marsh and Engineer
     John Richards.

------------------------
1895/03/20     Source: "Last Night Was Rather Cool for Sleeping
               Out of Doors" in "Daily Local News" (March 20,
               1895)

     This article contained an anonymous conversation with a
     blue-collar laborer from Chester.  He took the train to West
     Chester and slept outdoors upon arrival.  He had heard that
     he might get work at a nursery.

------------------------
1896/05/20     Source: Daily Local News in Chester County
               Historical Society

     W. Harmer Davis become the new Steward of the Chester County
     Home.

------------------------
1896/05/11     Source: Daily Local News in Chester County
               Historical Society

     Caleb Brinton Swisher dies on 1896/05/10 after a short but
     sever illness.  Was the Steward of the Chester County Poor
     House from 1886/04/00 until his death.  He was born in
     Lancaster County in 1852 and lived in New Jersey.  He
     married there and then moved back into Chester County.  His
     first wife died about a year after he became the Steward of
     the Home.  He married again on 1895/05/16 to Mary Meredith
     Strode in a Friends ceremony.  He had an attack of Grip days
     before his weeding.  

------------------------
1898/03/07     Source: Daily Local News (March 7, 1898)

     Josiah Burnett was an invalid after 25 years working for the
     PRR.

------------------------
1899/04/05     Source: "Daily Local News" (April 5, 1899).

     Names of men who worked for the PRR: Josiah Burnett (JJ:
     probably junior, since Josiah Burnett was an invalid in
     1898/03/07) was the "head man," assisted by Millard Snare,
     Michael Reagan and John Ryan.

------------------------
1900/08/23     Source: Daily Local News (August 23, 1900)

     Elwood Datchell, the baggage agent at the PRR station on
     Market Street, was transferred to West Grove.  He was
     replaced by Mr. Eckley, who came from West Grove.

------------------------
1900/05/17     Source: Daily Local News 

     An accident occurred last night at the works of the
     Phoenixville Iron Works by which Roland B. Johnson, 35 years
     old, lost his life.  Johnson, with several other men, was
     working on a large 60-foot girder, which had been insecurely
     propped up.  The huge piece of steel toppled over, striking
     Johnson in the side, breaking several of his ribs and
     fatally injuring him.  After being struck he ran about 20
     feet, then fell like a corpse.


------------------------
1902/05/31     Source: Daily Local News (May 31, 1902)

     Christian Kautz was the gatekeeper for the PRR at the Market
     Street crossing.

------------------------
1902/11/20     Source: Daily Local News (November 20, 1902)

     Small boys congregated at the PRR station and West Chester
     trolley stations to earn money carrying baggage for
     returning teachers.  At least one woman reported that her
     baggage was lost as a result.

------------------------
1906/06/11     Source: "Death at Sconnelltown" in "Daily Local
               News" (June 11, 1906)

     John Carey Jr. and his son, Harry Reagan Carey, were killed
     last Saturday by lightning as they waited in a shelter near
     the railway station at Lenape.  John Carey was employed at
     the "Griffith enterprise" (owned by Alfred Taylor and W. A.
     Griffith), and was active in the Republican Party, although
     he had recently shifted his support to the reform party and
     become a member of the Lincoln-Roosevelt Club.

------------------------
1907/03/16     Source: Daily Local News (March 16, 1907)

     John Malin was the foreman for P. J. Jefferis' work crew
     that constructed eight houses on East Nields Street.

------------------------
1909/03/20     Source: Daily Local News (March 20, 1909)

     Thomas C. Hogue, agent, rented a house for Elizabeth
     McAllister, owner, to John Raub, a foreman at the Apple
     Plumbing Company in West Chester.

------------------------
1917/08/17     Source: Daily Local News (August 17, 1917)

     John Doran, a widower, died.  He was survived by his son
     Lawrence, an engineer, and his daughter, Mrs. Ellen
     Steadman.  John Doran was a retired street cleaner for West
     Chester borough who was in poor health.  He was also a
     member of St. Agnes Catholic church.

------------------------
1922/03/30     Source: Daily Local News (March 30, 1922)

     Dennis McDevitt was preparing to move from 559 South
     Franklin Street to a house on Marshall Street owned by
     William Chalfant Jr.  McDevitt worked as the gatekeeper at
     the Pennsylvania Railroad crossing on Market Street.

------------------------
1923/11/02     Source: Daily Local News (November 2, 1923)

     The 300 block of South Adams Street, opposite the PRR
     freight station, was inhabited by "colored" people.  Until
     recently, the entire block of houses was owned by General
     Henry R. Guss, but in recent years, many different people
     had purchased houses in this block.  

     The oldest resident of the block was Joshua Pierce, who
     identified himself as "the only colored Joshua Pierce in
     town."  He was 67 years old and had worked for Colonel Guss,
     Lin Lewis, Al Ingram, and George F. Townsend.  In 1923, he
     still worked for Joseph Wertz, but also had his own wood
     yard.  Pierce was quoted as saying the only thing wrong with
     his block was "a lot of houses are owned by people in
     Philadelphia, Media and other places, who do not keep them
     fixed up the way they should.  Our location is good and our
     people are good."

------------------------
1930s/early    Source: Leah Schechter, editor, I JUST WANTED TO
               MAKE A CONTRIBUTION: THE LIFE OF WALTER T. KERWIN
               (West Chester: Henderson High School AP History,
               1992), 3.  CCHS#E745.K39

     When he was in high school, Walter T. Kerwin (Jr) worked in
     local mushroom houses for $1.52 a day.  (JJ: This must have
     been about 1934.)

------------------------
1930s     Source: Michael Vircsik, Phoenixville resident,
interview
by 
              Daniel G. Cleary (Phoenixville, April 19, 1996).

     Michael Vircsik was born at #10 Hall street (Cottage Row) in
     1919.  His father came  to America in 1902 from Hungary(?)
     and was a worker at the iron mill, making about $.10 cents
     per hour.  His father worked a shift lasting 11-12 hours
     each day of the week and 1/2 day on Saturday.  Michael was
     unsure, but estimated the monthly rent at Hall street at
     $8.00.  While living there in the early 1920s his family had
     no plumbing or running water, and burned coal for heat and
     fuel.  He had one brother and 2 older sisters, with another
     brother(?) dying as an infant. 

     Michael described the neighborhood as having a high level of
     social cohesiveness, primarily due to the language barrier. 
     Many immigrants came to America expecting to make some money
     and then leave, so there was little incentive to learn
     English.  As a result immigrants tended to associates with
     others from their home countries.  He also noted there
     tended to be large families, and that alcohol consumption
     was prevalent.

     Michael noted that women would carry soup/hot food to their
     husbands at the factory during lunch/break times.  Children
     would also accompany them, providing an opportunity for
     families to spend time together despite the father's long
     work hours.

     For extra money, the family would take borders into their
     home.  Michael's mother also worked as a maid and took in
     extra laundry, while the entire family would contribute to
     piecemeal sewing projects (ex. stitching collars in women's
     shirts).  Children would also collect coal that had fallen
     off of railroad cars.  In general, families had to "scratch
     to make an existence".  They were "dominated by the
     company," but they really didn't know any better.  In
     Europe, they were dominated by the aristocracy.  Here, it
     was by the company.  People were accustomed to it and
     therefore probably never felt oppressed or taken advantage
     of. 

------------------------
1930s     Source: Leah Schechter, editor, I JUST WANTED TO MAKE A
          CONTRIBUTION: THE LIFE OF WALTER T. KERWIN (West
          Chester: Henderson High School AP History, 1992), 2. 
          CCHS#E745.K39

     Walter T. Kerwin (Sr) worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad,
     and after the depression, became the tax collector for West
     Chester.

------------------------
1931 Source: "Mushrooms face 58 failures" in "Daily Local News"
     (November 14, 1972), 13.  NOTE: Centennial issue nø2 of 5 by
     the Daily Local News

     The Mushroom Growers Cooperative Association was formed in
     1931 under the leadership of William Maule.  Even before
     that, Edward H. Jacob founded a mushroom firm in West
     Chester that became, after his death, part of the Grocery
     Store Products Company.  The Borden Company had an interest
     in the Brandywine Mushroom Corporation of West Chester.

------------------------
1937/10/27     Source: Coatesville Record (October 27, 1937)

     J. Walter Keech retired from the PRR after 46 years.  He
     started as a clerk in West Chester on 1891/06/01, and was
     promoted to billing clerk, accountant, chief clerk and
     station agent.  From 1917-1924, he served as station master
     at Oxford, where he presided over the worst accident of his
     career when a passenger train collided with a line of
     standing locomotives.  In 1924, he returned to West Chester,
     and in 1931, he was promoted to passenger and freight agent. 
     He was the son of the late Joseph C. Keech, a Coatesville
     railroader and former member of the state legislature.

------------------------
1940s     Source: DLN advertisement

     The Oriole Tea Room was located at 621 South Walnut Street
     and operated by Gertrude Taylor (Mrs. Warren C. Taylor).

------------------------
1944/08/05     Source: Daily Local News (August 5, 1944)

     Greenfield Park required many loads of fill in the swampy
     area around Goose Creek.  A local resident, Joseph Cotter,
     supervised the placement of truckloads of fill.  He
     constructed a small shack for his own use at the site, and
     marked it with a sign to "Keep Out" to deter local vandals.

------------------------
1945/02/17     Source: Daily Local News (February 17, 1945)

     Joseph Carter supervised the grading and distribution of
     fill in the "Riggins Lot" just south of Goose Creek.  There
     were plans to build a cannery there to supplement the
     cannery already in operation along the railway in
     Willistown.  The fill came from rubbish collections in the
     neighborhoods adjoining Goose Creek.

------------------------
1946/05/22     Source: Announcement in DLN 1946/05/22

     Alonzo Harvey's "Saddlery Shop" opened for business at
     539 South Franklin Street.  It mentioned that "Al Harvey
     [was] formerly with M. S. Yearsley & Sons."

------------------------
1952/07/11     Source: Daily Local News (July 11, 1952)

     The first diesel locomotive reached West Chester.

------------------------
1953/06/18     Source: Daily Local News (June 18, 1953)

     In the obituary for Raymond O. Washburn, it was disclosed
     that he had been the "New England district manager" for the
     ESCO Cabinet Co. for 28 years (in other words, since 1925). 
     Thus, Ann Gincley's husband worked for a large company. 
     Other clippings showed that ESCO owned the Sharpless
     Separator Works in West Chester.

------------------------
1959/12/09     Source: Daily Local News (December 9, 1959)

     Levi Gincley died on 1959/12/08 at the age of 71 (1888-
     1959).  He was retired from the Brandywine Mushroom Company. 
     Levi Gincley died in his home at 390 E. Nields Street.  He
     was survived by his wife Helen Harvey Gincley and the
     following children (presumably in order by age): Charles,
     Martha (wife of James S. Stanley), Dorothy, Robert, Harvey,
     Betty, Francis, Alonzo and Florence.  Another son, Earl, was
     already dead (see 1956 auto accident).  Levi also had a
     brother, Francis Ryan, a sister Mrs. Oliver Lease of York,
     and 21 grandchildren.

------------------------
1965/03/22     Source: DLN (March 22, 1965)

     A. Roy Ferrier of 437 East Nields Street died on 1965/03/22. 
     He worked for the last five years as a carpenter at
     Winterthur.  The obituary listed four children and eleven
     grandchildren, but did not give his age.

------------------------
1968 Source: DLN advertisement

     The Oriole Tea Room closed at 621 South Walnut Street.  It
     was operated by Gertrude Taylor (Mrs. Warren C. Taylor).

    
-----------------------------------------

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