African History Since 1875

AFRICAN HISTORY TIMELINE: World War I

Copyright 1998 by Jim Jones
All rights reserved

.......DATE............. ...............................EVENT............................. ..............

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR I
1890s Germany began to challenge England on the seas by constructing a major battle fleet.
1900/12/04 France and Italy signed a secret agreement that gave Italy a free hand in Tripoli and the French a free hand in Morocco.
1900 Anarchy in Morocco under Sultan Abdul Aziz
1900 The first pan-Africanist conference was organized in London by a West-Indian, Henry Sylvester Williams
1900-1903 the French occupied a string of Saharan oases in central Algeria that were claimed by the Sultan of Morocco
1902 The Boer War ended in South Africa
1902-1903 Omar Zarhuni raised a rebel army to challenge the Sultan of Morocco, Abdul Aziz
1904/04 France and Britain signed the Entente Cordiale, which gave France a free hand in Morocco
1904 A Moroccan rebel leader, Raisuli, kidnapped an American citizen for ransom and terrorized the country behind Tangier
1905/03/31 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany visited Tangier, precipitating a crisis with France
1906/01/16-04/07 The Sultan of Morocco hosted the Conference of Algeciras which confirmed Moroccan independence while recognizing extensive Spanish and French control over Moroccan affairs
1906 Edmund Morel published Red Rubber
1906-1908 Tthe French invaded Morocco to protect Europeans who were surrounded in the capital at Fez
1907 A lawyer named Mohandas Gandhi organized Indian civil disobedience to British rule in South Africa
1908/01/04 Sultan Abdul Aziz of Morocco was overthrown by Moulay Hafid, acting as a Moroccan nationalist against Aziz
1908 Belgian government asumed control over the Congo Free State
1909/02/09 Germany recognized the new Moroccan government headed by Moulay Hafid and signed a treaty with France recognizing France's "special interets" in Morocco
1910 The Union of South Africa held its first elections, with Boer victories in all provicnes except Natal
1910 W.E.B. Du Bois became one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
1910 Moroccan nationalists and Berber separatists continued to resist the central government in Fez. France occupied Fez in order to protect European residents in the city.
1911/04/02 Germany sent a gunboat (the Panther) to the southern Moroccan port of Aqadir, provoking a French protest
1911/05/04 France and Germany reached an agreement whereby Germany recognized Morocco as a French sphere of influence in exchange for Ruanda-Urundi, which was added to the German colony of Tanganyika
1912/03/30 Sultan Moulay Hafid of Morocco accepted a French protectorate in the Treaty of Fes
1912 Mission-educated Africans from Cape Province, led by Pixley Seme, organized the African National Congress to promote African political interests in South Africa
1912 France began to draft African soldiers
1913 The South African "Natives Land Act" prohibited Africans from owning land outside of reserves established by the British government in the late 19th century
1914 Blaise Diagne became the first black African elected to the French National Assembly to represent Dakar and three other Senegalese towns
1914 World War I began in Europe
1915-1916 Revolts in French West Africa resulted in the death of of French administrators and African collaborators
1916 Battle of Verdun killed nearly one million soldiers
1917/03 Moderate revolution in Russia
1917/11 Bolshevik revolution in Russia
1918/11/11 World War I ended in Europe
1918/11/25 End of World War I in East Africa